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Ingredient Contribution in Extruded Product - Protein Sources

Ingredients Contribution in Extruded Products - Protein Sources

During extrusion, there will be some changes in physical, chemical, functional, and nutritional properties.
Denaturation of protein is the most important attribute in changing the extrudate properties. According to Camire in Riaz (2000), protein changes during extrusion can be divided into functional and nutritional changes. Functionally, extrusion will reduce the solubility in water and diluted buffer also helps in texture forming of the extrudate. While nutritionally, extrusion will reduce lysine and improved digestibility.

In the table below, I have listed some protein-source ingredients and their effect on the extrusion process.

  • Ingredient
  • General Information
  • Effect in Extrusion
  • Citation

Blood Meal
Blood meal

  • A by-product from the slaughterhouse
  • Has high protein content
  • Its sale and utilization are regulated in some countries
  • Spray-dried form improved binding and expansion
  • Affect the product color (gives red to black color)
  • Forte and Young, 2016

Canola Meal
canola meal
  • Oilseed with high oil and protein content
  • Available in full fat or defatted meal
  • Decrease the pellet density
  • A functional protein source
  • May lower water stability due to partial presence of oil
  • Cruz-Suarez et al., 2001
  • Forte and Young, 2016
  • Wickramasuriya et al, 2015
  • Zettl et al., 2019
Casein Powder
Casein powder
  • A protein source from milk
  • Lower the bulk density and expansion ratio of the extruded material
  • Ponbhagavathi et al., 2020
Corn Gluten Meal
Corn gluten meal
  • A by-product of the wet-milling of maize grain for starch (or ethanol) production
  • Imparts yellow color to the product
  • A protein source
  • Requires more power for processing
  • Minimize the high level of steam to avoid surging
  • Forte and Young, 2016
Corn Hominy Meal
corn hominy grits
  • Obtained through nixtamalization and grinding
  • High in fiber, with protein and some residual starch
  • May cause fibrous appearance if not ground properly
  • Forte and Young, 2016
  • Gomez et al, 1991
Cottonseed Meal
Cottonseed meal
  • A by-product after cotton is ginned, the seeds crushed and oil is extracted
  • May contain toxin (gossypol)
  • No direct effect in extrusion (due to usage level)
  • Lower the expansion rate, increase density
  • May develop wrinkle and crunchy texture, instead of smooth and continuous structures
  • Forte and Young, 2016
  • Jáquez et al, 2012
Distilles Grain
Distillers grain
  • By product of ethanol production
  • High in protein and fiber, but low in starch
  • The lower expansion rate of feed
  • Increase density when combined with starch higher amount of amylopectin
  • Kannadhason and Muthukumarappan, 2010
  • Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006
Feather Meal
feather meal
  • By product from the poultry industry
  • Mainly keratin with digestibility less than 20%
  • Reduces expansion
  • Gives a smaller cell structure
  • Requires fine grind to avoid rough surface on products
  • Forte and Young, 2016
  • Williams et al, 1979
Fish Meal
Fish meal
  • A by-product of the fish industry or from fish that are not for human consumption
  • The fine ground form can improve SME and cooking efficiency (shear force)
  • Water-soluble protein content will act as a plasticizer and binder
    • FAO, 1986
    • Samuelsen, 2015
    Flax Meal
    Flax meal
    • By product of oil extraction from flax plant oilseed
    • Increase bulk density and lower expansion ratio
    • Full fat meal extrudes well, even with high oil content
    • Require more water during processing
    • Forte and Young, 2016
    • Vadukapuram et al, 2014
    Meat and Bone Meal
    Bone meal
    • Available as meat meal without bones, which is lower in ash content
    • High in oil and mineral content
    • lower the shear rate and expansion ratio
    • Forte and Young, 2016
    • Zarzyck et al., 2016
    • High level in fat, protein, and soluble gum
    • Retard expansion of product due to high level of fat and fiber
    • The presence of fiber hinder the gas bubble expansion
    • Dehulled oat may increase expansion
    • K. Ah-Hen et al., 2013
    • Liu et al, 2000
    • High in protein and fiber content
    • Commonly used as pea protein isolate in plant-based meat extrusion
    • Sticky when hydrated compared to other starches
    • High protein source which reduces expansion
    • Contribute green or yellow color to products
    • Can be used as the texturized plant-based meat ingredient
    • Forte and Young, 2016
    • Osen, 2017
    • Tiwari and Singh, 2012
    Poultry Meal
    Poultry meal
    • Animal protein by-product
    • Produced via rendering process
    • High oil content, dark brown color
    • Reduces expansion
    • Gives a smaller cell structure
    • Adekoya et al., 2021
    • Forte and Young, 2016
    Shrimp (Prawn) Meal
    Shrimp meal
    • Made from whole or parts of shrimp (head and shells)
    • A portion of the protein is in the form of chitin (which is not digestible)
    • Lower the expansion rate of extruded material
    • Forte and Young, 2016
    • Göhl, 1982
    • Heuzé and Tran, 2020
    • Neto et al., 2019
    Wheat Gluten
    Wheat gluten
    • Protein source extracted from wheat
    • Provide binding and good water stability in products
    • Forte and Young, 2016
    • Lovell, 1989
    Whey Protein Concentrate
    whey protein concentrate
    • a product extracted from whey (a by-product of the dairy industry)
    • Lower melt viscosity and SME
    • Limit expansion and increase density
    • Compete for water with starch, decrease starch gelatinization
    • Morr and Ha, 1993
    • Yu et al., 2016

    Graduated from National Taiwan Ocean University Food Science Department earning the title of Master of Science (MSc.) Albert has a strong background in science and used this science-based approach to deliver knowledge to Customers. Yearly experience in sales, technical, and marketing departments, added with continuous communication with the Customer gives him the knowledge in feed machinery and its operations.

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